Volataic Cells – Production of Electricity on Kepler 62e

Research question :

What is the best metal to produce energy for batteries ?


Methodology :

  1. Prepare the salt bridge by putting filter paper into KCL
  2. Into six 100 ml  beakers put the metal solutions of :
    1. magnesium sulphate
    2. nickel sulphate
    3. iron sulphate
    4. copper sulphate
    5. zinc sulphate
    6. aluminium sulphate
  3. Put the metals which will act as a electrodes into solutions
  4. Put salt bridge into both of solutions
  5. To enable the measurement connect the voltmeter to electrodes



  1. One or more humans
  2. Six 100mL glass beakers
  3. Voltmeter + pertaining wires [red and black wires with crocodile clips]
  4. Metals including Magnesium, Iron, Zinc, Copper, Aluminium, and Nickel in plate-form
  5. Metal solutions including: magnesium sulphate, nickel sulphate, iron sulphate, copper sulphate, zinc sulphate and aluminium sulphate
  6. KCl and one 250 mL beaker
  7. Filter paper of glass tube salt bridge




  • use of different metals and solutions

Dependent :

  • the change in volts



Metal Metal Potential Difference [V] Amt. [mL]
Zinc Copper 1.00 V 100
Nickel Iron 0.38 V 50
Magnesium Nickel 1.67 V 50
Iron Magnesium 1.36 V 50
Nickel Fe + Mg 1.40 V 50
Magnesium Copper 1.91 V 50
Aluminum Iron 0.95 V 50
Aluminum Copper 0.44 V 50
Aluminum Magnesium 2.12 V 50



In conclusion, Aluminum and Magnesium resulted in the highest potential difference. This is mainly because  of the following table which explains why Aluminum and Magnesium yield the greatest potential difference.


The metals used that had the greatest potential difference have the greatest standard electrode potential differences. This results in a higher voltage produced.



  • higher concentration of metal solutions as it would result in a higher potential difference
  • conduct the experiment multiple times and average
  • conduct experiment under standard conditions of 101 kPa and 278 Kelvin

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